Blockchain technology: Advantages and challenges

  • Blockchain employs encryption and distributed storage to ensure data is resistant to tampering and theft. Its transparent nature allows public visibility and verification of transactions, enhancing credibility.
  • By eliminating centralised management, blockchain distributes data storage and transaction validation across multiple nodes, making the network more democratic. It also ensures complete traceability of transactions, recording each in an immutable chain.
  • Despite its advantages, blockchain faces scalability issues, with limited transaction speeds and high costs. Additionally, the development of blockchain technology encounters regulatory uncertainties, particularly in areas like digital assets and smart contracts.

Since its introduction by Satoshi Nakamoto in the white paper “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” blockchain technology has received much attention and sparked considerable controversy. Some people believe blockchain is a disruptive invention, akin to the steam engine, electricity, and the internet, potentially transforming human society’s value transmission and ushering in a new technological revolution. Others, however, view Bitcoin and blockchain as a scam or harbour concerns about its future.

Overview of blockchain technology

Blockchain is a decentralised distributed ledger characterised by blockchain storage, immutability, and secure reliability. It combines technologies such as distributed storage, peer-to-peer transmission, consensus mechanisms, and cryptography. Through an ever-growing chain of data blocks, it records transactions and information, ensuring data security and transparency.

Blockchain originated with Bitcoin, initially proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 as the underlying technology for Bitcoin. From its inception in the Bitcoin network, blockchain has evolved into a global technology, attracting worldwide attention and investment. The emergence of new-generation blockchain platforms like Ethereum has further expanded its application fields.

Key features of blockchain include decentralisation, immutability, transparency, security, and programmability. Each data block links to the previous one, forming a continuous chain that ensures the integrity of transaction history. Smart contract technology makes blockchain programmable, supporting a wider range of applications.

Blockchain has seen broad applications in finance, supply chain, healthcare, real estate, and more. Despite facing challenges in scalability and regulation, it has become a powerful tool for transforming traditional business and societal models, holding significant future potential.

Also read: Craig Wright: Self-proclaimed bitcoin inventor accused of extensive lying

Advantages of blockchain technology


Blockchain employs encryption technology and distributed storage, making data resistant to tampering and theft. Each block contains the hash value of the previous block, so any data alteration will be detected by other nodes.


Data on the blockchain is publicly visible, allowing anyone to view and verify transactions, thereby increasing transparency and credibility.


Blockchain eliminates centralised management bodies. Data storage and transaction validation are distributed across multiple nodes in the network, making the network more democratic, transparent, and fair.

Censorship resistance

Data on the blockchain is difficult to censor and block, allowing anyone to freely access and transmit data, thus protecting information freedom and privacy.


Blockchain enables complete traceability of transactions. Each transaction is recorded in an immutable data chain, enhancing the traceability and provenance of products and assets.

Also read: Shielding your coins: The rise of cryptocurrency insurance

Challenges of blockchain technology


Blockchain faces significant performance and scalability issues when handling large-scale data and transactions. Current blockchain networks may struggle to meet high concurrency and large-scale data processing demands.

Performance issues

Blockchain transaction speeds and throughput is limited, leading to long transaction confirmation times and high costs. This affects blockchain’s application in real-time and large-scale commercial scenarios.

Regulatory compliance

The development of blockchain technology faces legal and regulatory uncertainties and risks in various countries, especially in emerging application areas like digital assets and smart contracts.

Privacy protection

Data on the blockchain is publicly visible, posing challenges for the privacy protection of sensitive data. While blockchain offers anonymity and encryption, more effective privacy protection mechanisms are needed.

Energy consumption

The Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism consumes significant energy during mining, adversely affecting the environment, and posing a problem for the sustainable development of blockchain technology.

Development trends in blockchain technology

Technological innovation

Blockchain technology will continue to innovate and improve to address current challenges such as scalability, performance issues, and energy consumption. New consensus mechanisms, data structures, and encryption algorithms may be proposed and applied. Other technological areas like privacy protection, zero-knowledge proofs, sidechains, and sharding will also combine with blockchain technology, offering more functionalities and application scenarios.

Application expansion

Blockchain technology will be applied in more fields, including but not limited to finance, supply chain, IoT, digital identity, healthcare, and copyright protection. Various industries will explore how to leverage blockchain technology to enhance efficiency, reduce costs, and improve services. Emerging applications like decentralised finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) will continue to grow, attracting more investment and innovation.

Policy and regulation

As blockchain technology develops, governments and regulatory bodies worldwide will strengthen regulation and standardisation in the blockchain sector. The formulation and implementation of laws and regulations will influence the development direction and application scenarios of blockchain technology. Governments and industry organisations may introduce more blockchain standards and guidelines, providing norms and support for blockchain applications.

International cooperation

The development of blockchain technology requires international cooperation and exchange. Governments, businesses, and academia worldwide will enhance collaboration to promote the development and application of blockchain technology. Multinational companies and international organisations may jointly undertake blockchain projects, exploring innovative applications in areas such as cross-border payments, trade finance, and digital identity.

Sustainable development

The sustainable development of blockchain technology will become a key topic, including aspects like energy consumption, environmental impact, and social benefits. More eco-friendly and sustainable blockchain solutions will likely receive greater attention and support.


Crystal Feng

Crystal Feng is an intern news reporter at Blue Tech Wave dedicated in tech trends. She is studying Chinese-English translation at Beijing International Studies University. Send tips to

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